EDTA chelation is a therapy by which repeated administrations of a weak synthetic amino acid EDTA, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid gradually reduce atherosclerotic plaque and other mineral deposits throughout the cardiovascular system by literally dissolving them away. EDTA removes toxic metals from the blood. Studies have shown that as people age they continuously accumulate toxic metals: The accrual of these toxins invites an increased risk for various diseases, especially heart disease.
The nephron The kidneys transport substances by three vectorial processes.
Vectorial processes are characterized by their direction and size only Fig. Black arrows indicate three vectorial transporting processes in a nephron: Tubular reabsorption is the net movement of water and solute from the tubular lumen to the tubule cells and to the peritubular capillaries, and 3.
Tubular secretion represents the net addition of solute to the tubular fluid. The final excretion rate of the substance s in the urine is called net-flux, Js, in Fig. Nephron anatomy The functional unit is the nephron. Each human kidney contains 1 million units at birth.
Each nephron consists of a glomerulus ie, many glomerular capillaries in a Bowman's capsulea proximal tubule forming several coils pars convoluta before ending in a straight segment pars rectathe thin part of the Henle loop and a distal tubule also with a pars recta and a pars convoluta.
The distal tubule ends in a collecting duct together with tubules from several other nephrons. The kidney average normal weight g consists of a cortex and a medulla. The medulla is composed of renal pyramids, the base of which originates at the corticomedullary junction.
Each pyramid consists of an inner zone the papilla and an outer zone. The outer zone is divided into the outer medullary ray and the inner ray. The rays consist of collecting ducts and thick ascending limbs of the nephron.
A kidney lobulus is a medullary ray with adjacent cortical tissue. A kidney lobule is a pyramid with adjacent cortical tissue. The loop of Henle is a regulating unit. Actually, the Henle loop consists of the proximal pars recta, the thin Henle loop and the distal pars recta, which ends at the level of macula densa.
The thin descending limb contains a water channel called aquaporin 1 in both the luminal and the basolateral membrane.
The last segment of the thick ascending limb is called the macula densa. The juxtaglomerular JG apparatus include the macula densa and granular cells of the afferent and efferent arterioles.
Granular cells are modified smooth muscle cells that produce and release renin. The distal tubule is convoluted from the macula densa of the JG apparatus Fig. Several collecting ducts join to empty through the duct of Bellini into a renal cup or calyx in the renal pelvis.
The superficial nephron represented on the left side of Fig.End Tidal Carbon Dioxide Monitoring During CPR: A Predictor of Outcome.
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Arteries generally carry well oxygenated blood away from your heart and towards your body’s tissues. Veins generally carry (“relatively”) poorly oxygenated blood along with other waste products excreted by your body cells/tissues and back towards the heart.
Capillaries are the vessels that. LAC MASQUELIER’s® French Pine Bark Extract is an original product of Professor Jack Masquelier, the scientist who discovered OPCs and pioneered the extraction and scientific work of this active compound.
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This reduces the diameter of distended veins and increases venous blood flow velocity and valve . The composition of urine in Table is the basis for simple diagnostics. Anuria or oliguria .