His claim had been contested by another member of the Liu house—Liu Xuan, better known as Liu Gengshi—who had been actually enthroned for two years, until his death in the course of turbulent civil fighting. The new emperor completed defeating rival aspirants to the throne in As had occurred in Xi Han, dynastic establishment was followed by a period of internal consolidation rather than expansion.
The rise and fall of the Roman and Chinese empires juxtaposed. The Comparing ancient rome han china and Chinese had much similarities but also many differences.
Their economies were both agrarian and monetized, but adopted different models of production organization. Their societies were both patriarchic, conservative and stratified.
Each person had specific social roles and had moral duty to be contended with them. Both societies valued the family, the nursery of authoritarianism, but the Roman made a clear legal separation between the state and the family, the Chinese did not.
Their political power was mostly held by aristocrats, but the Roman senatorial aristocracy and the Chinese feudal aristocracy differed in characters.
Initially, their states were all city-sized, but the western city-state and Chinese feudal states had different political structures. Because the conditions of the infant Republic and the early Spring and Autumn period were so different, and because the two realms undertook radical reforms in different stages of development, their rises followed different paths, and ended in two forms of absolute monarchy, a military dictatorship with wealthy elites for the Roman Empire, a bureaucratic autocracy with doctrinaire elites for imperial China.
The five centuries prior of unification of China were divided into two periods, traditionally called the Spring and Autumn period named after the Spring and Autumn Annals complied by Confucius, an aristocrat who lived toward its end and the Warring-states period.
In terms of technology, economic development, and political organization, China in the Spring and Autumn period lagged far behind that of the early Roman Republic. It caught up during the Warring-states period, when Legalist reformers prepared the institutional foundations of the imperial China.
China in the Spring and Autumn period was still in the late bronze age. Its main weapon was the chariot, which was monopolized by aristocrats. Private landed property right was unknown; land ownership was undifferentiated from fiefdom and political sovereignty.
People lived their lives in communal farms and collectively worked the seigniorial fields without compensation. Individual families used allotted plots for subsistence but did not own them; the plots were rotated among families for fairness.
There was no market for land. The more than a thousand fully independent tiny states were descendants of fiefdoms erected in the eleventh century BCE by the king of Zhou.
Their rulers, mostly distant relatives, still retained the title of lords and paid lip service to the now powerless king. Each lord in turn parceled out his realm into fiefs for vassals, who also served as his ministers. The hereditary ministers owed loyalty to their lord only, not to the king.
Thus although the king had notional authority over the world, substantive authority was distributed among feudal aristocrats, the lords and their ministers. The state was undifferentiated from the ruling family. All ministries were hereditary, many held their own fiefs, and most were relatives to the ruler.
Qinqin, the love of relatives, was the prime political principle. Aristocrats punished offenders, but had no published laws to regulate the application of punishments. They deemed their personal discretion sufficed because of their superior status and virtue.
The big achievement of the Spring and Autumn was high culture. Centuries of easy life had bred polished aristocrats who quoted poetry in banquets and political discourses.
Their texts would become Confucian Canons, which would provide a moral gloss of their rituals and standards. The precociousness of high culture relative to political and economic developments enabled bronze-age ideals to be frozen into the tenets of Confucianism and sway imperial China for more than two millennia.
The rule of man and family values would continue to be the center of political principles. Challenges did come in the warring-states period. Effective and affordable tools spread, elevating productivity.Comparing ancient river civilizations.
F.1 Compare ancient river civilizations: geography and society; F.2 Compare ancient river civilizations: achievements and legacy.
The discus was one of the original events in the ancient Olympic games. Each thrower used the same discus for the competition — a copper one which was kept in Olympia. China - Dong (Eastern) Han: The Han house was restored by Liu Xiu, better known as Guangwudi, who reigned from 25 to 57 ce.
His claim had been contested by another member of the Liu house—Liu Xuan, better known as Liu Gengshi—who had been actually enthroned for two years, until his death in the course of turbulent civil fighting.
Chang’an had been virtually destroyed by warfare, and. Compare and contrast the decline and collapse of the Han Empire (Pg76,,,,decline and fall of ) - Roman empires (Environmental reason for collapse, crisis in late period ).
(Environmental reason for collapse, crisis in late period ). In short, when comparing and contrasting Rome and Han China, the most important items are their similarities in developing technology, differences in interacting with the water around them, and the differences in social hierarchies.
Both civilizations had rather advanced technology for the time period. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.