Psychological Research and Scientific Method This has always been one of my favourite topics, both to study and to teach. We begin with a look at biological rhythms in general, looking at research into the different types.
Making A level psychology easier The consequences of disrupting biological rhythms - shift work and jet lag What are the effects on people of jet leg and shift work?
How can the effects of jet lag be reduced? How can shift work be made easier to cope with? Jet Lag Jet lag occurs when we travel rapidly across time zones. Flying from London to New York takes around 6 hours.
If you leave London at noon, you will arrive 6 hours later and your body will feel as though it is 6PM, however it will only be 1PM.
Your body will be ready for sleep when it is 7PM locally. This conflict between local time and your biological time leads to tiredness and confusion.
Disruption of the circadian rhythm by jet leg can affect the performance and alertness of business people attending meetings in other countries, air crew, sports players, and so on. This shows that travelling from east to west is less harmful to the circadian rhythm than travelling from west to east.
Travelling from east to west leads to phase delay of the body clock, which seems easier for the body to cope with than phase advance. Coren offers advice for minimizing the effect of jet lag: Catch up on sleep before flying to avoid starting with sleep deprivation.
Avoid consuming stimulants and depressants such as alcohol and caffeine. If it is morning then expose yourself to as much sunlight as possible in order to reset your biological clock.
Consuming melatonin may help resynchronise the sleep-wake cycle more quickly. Beaumont et al found that taking melatonin at bed time for 3 days before travel and 5 days after significantly reduced the symptoms of jet lag.
Shift Work Shift workers are expected to be alert, productive and safe at all times of day and night, however working at night and sleeping during the day is clearly contrary to the normal sleep-wake cycle.
The Exon Valdez disaster, Chernobyl nuclear disaster, sinking of the Titanic, and the Piper Alpha disaster are all examples of catastrophes involving shift workers and, although it is not an established fact in these cases, there could well have been an impairment in the performance of workers during the events that caused the disasters.
Artificial lighting makes it possible for humans to be active at nighttime and allows us to work over a full hour period. It is therefore vital to understand the effect of working at night and sleeping during the day on safety, productivity and health.
Czeisler et al found that shift workers at a Utah chemical plant reported high levels of stress, difficulty sleeping, and health problems that affected productivity. The workers were on a backward shift rotation nights then afternoons then mornings which was causing their sleep-wake cycles to phase advance effectively shortening the 24 hour cycle.
Czeisler introduced a forward shift rotation nights then mornings then afternoons to phase delay the sleep-wake cycle, and placed workers on each shift stage for 21 days to allow the body clock time to fully adjust.
After 9 months the workers reported less stress, found sleeping easier, and had increased productivity. An effective alternative to rotating shift patterns is permanent non-rotating shift work i. Phillips et al found that when this was introduced for Kentucky police officers, the rate of sleeping at work was lower and they also had fewer accidents.
Permanent shifts, however, can lead to other problems as they cause difficulty with social and family life. Artificial light can have a significant effect on the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Boivin et al investigated the power of artificial lighting at resetting biological clock.
Very bright light 10, lux 2. Bright light lux 3. Ordinary room light lux 4. Dim light After three days the sleep-wake cycles for members of group 1 had advanced five hours earlier, group two by three hours, group 3 one hour and 4 had drifted one hour later.
This study shows that even room light can have an effect on circadian rhythms, and has important implications for the type of environment that employers should provide for employees to work in - if a shift worker is to adapt to an inverted sleep-wake cycle quickly, then they should be exposed to very bright light when working at night.Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms (A2 Psychology Sleep) Words | 5 Pages.
consider the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms (24) A rhythm is something that is regularly repeated. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA PRINCIPLES AMD METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NEPHROTOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations .
The consequences of disrupting biological rhythms - shift work and jet lag What are the effects on people of jet leg and shift work? How can the effects of jet lag be reduced?
that he may cut off the memory of them from the earth. Start studying Biological rhythms and sleep - A2 Psychology A. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Real-world application supporting shift work disrupting biological rhythms IDA. Sleep deprivation may have fatal consequences as Rechtschaffen et al () showed when they forced rats to .
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