The Magister degree was the original graduate degree at German speaking universities. In Germany the Diplom dates back to the pre-republican period: The Diplom was subsequently adopted by the Technische Hochschulen Institutes of Technology which had received university status following this Prussian decree. In East Germany, the Diplom was the only first degree and was also granted in disciplines such as medicine or law, which at West German universities were completed with a Staatsexamen.
The multiplicity of trades and of factories and workshops makes Edinburgh thesis binding regulations minute description of Birmingham's industry difficult. At least for the later part of this period most trades and workplaces are recorded somewhere, if not in one of the extensive 19thcentury surveys, fn.
In rate books and directories manufacturers' names, too, have probably survived, at least for recent times. It is not possible here, however, to make a comprehensive survey of all these matters, while to concentrate on large firms only would deflect attention from the smaller undertakings which were the source of the bulk of employment and wealth.
What has been attempted here is an analysis of the principal features of Birmingham's industrial growth at various times within the period, and some guide to the literature on the subject.
Court, which treat the conurbation as a whole. The leather industry may then have been organized for manufacturing and trading purposes, for the merchants and craftsmen possessed a 'leather-hall' and controlled inspecting officers.
Yet at that time the cloth and leather trades were probably still more important than the iron industry. So that a great parte of the town is mayntayned by smithes'. In that year some of the King family were still fullers, but one at least was an ironmonger, providing iron for smiths and nailers.
During the Middle Ages Birmingham had not stood out from its neighbours as an industrial centre, for other Midland villages shared its geographical advantages. During the 16th century, however, industries which one would expect to find located on the coal outcrops to the north and west of Birmingham were moving south and east in search of water-power.
Such a forge is mentioned at Bromford in fn. The combination of iron ore, coal outcrops, and pure water was to be found elsewhere, yet, except at Sheffield, similar development did not take place during this period, and there must have been other reasons for the development of Birmingham's metal industry.
The causes of the growth of the town generally have been discussed above fn. In particular, freedom from the control of any guild or corporation may have encouraged enterprise. A deed of relating to a house in Moor Street lists among its trustees three ironmongers, a fuller, two mercers, and a smith.
Premises, too, changed their purpose. When the tanyards decayed they were often used in the textile trades and even in the preparation of iron. Possibly, too, the leather industry gave rise to specialization in the manufacture of saddles which in turn encouraged the local production of the ironmongery necessary to complete the horse's harness.
At all events as the 16th century progressed we find an increasing concentration of metalworkers around Birmingham. This was heaviest around the old town centre at Digbeth and Deritend, but we find similar occupations elsewhere. There were scythesmiths at Aston, fn. One of these was the hammer mill at Holford, fn.
The inventory of one of these nailers included, besides his bellows, hammers, and other implements, 'a burden of steele' fn.
The Aston scythesmith who died in had also left 'yron and stele', so he too may have made other things besides scythes; and Thomas Fitter of Bordesley left his 'plating anfyld' to his godson, though he mentioned that another man was working at it.Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our + Global Conferenceseries Events with over + Conferences, + Symposiums and + Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business..
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If you are interested in learning more about the Black History Gallery Project, here is a presentation Dr.
Joel Freeman made to a group interested in establishing a Black History gallery in their community.