These membrane proteins function cooperatively to allow ions to penetrate the lipid bilayer. The interdependency of lipid membranes and membrane proteins suggests that lipid bilayers and membrane proteins co-evolved together with membrane bioenergetics. Ideas About The Earliest Membranes[ edit ] Several hypotheses of the origin of cellular membranes exist:
O that sustains cells is about 40 times greater, by mass, than the yield the mass of cell mate- rial formed. Similar values can be calculated for bacteria such as E. Both methanogens and E. For any amount of RNA-like bases to form spontaneously via prebiotic chemistry—a central pillar of the RNA world concept Joyce, —or to double in mass through replication, the excess of waste product versus biomass must have been closer to 40, Today, all energy that biological systems use is ultimately harnessed through chemiosmotic coupling across membranes because all SLPs use substrates generated by chemiosmotic organisms.
But membrane bioenergetics requires proteins capable of both generating and tapping a gradient. These proteins include some of the most astonishing nanodevi- ces known, notably the ATP synthase, an energy-conserving rotary motor.
The ATP synthase was a product of long selection during the early phases of evolution, but like only 30 or so other proteins, it is as universal as the ribosome, and it displays the same deep phylogenetic split between archaea and bacteria Mulkidjanian et al.
Hence, it was present in the last common ancestor. Naturally reactive chemical environments can, in principle, cut this Gordian knot.
Shock and colleagues Shock et al.Origin of life emerged from cell membrane bioenergetics 20 December A coherent pathway which starts from no more than rocks, water and carbon dioxide and leads to the emergence of the strange bioenergetic properties of living cells has been traced for the first time in a major hypothesis paper in Cell this week.
Co-evolution of membranes and membrane bioenergetics. Szathmáry recently put forward a scenario of co-evolution of membranes and metabolism, where evolution proceeded through progressive sequestration of protocells from the environment. Under this model, the gradual build-up of enzymatic pathways inside the protocell should be .
The study of the origin of life, called "abiogenesis" by many researchers in the field, is highly relevant to xenology and xenologists.
By determining the conditions that existed on the primitive Earth, and by duplicating them in the laboratory, scientists can attempt to recreate events that must have occurred on this planet billions of years ago.
A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.   A central question in evolution is how simple protocells first arose and how they could differ in reproductive output, thus enabling the accumulation of novel biological emergences.
With the evolution of photosynthesis and the accumulation of higher potential electron acceptors—ultimately oxygen—membrane bioenergetics could have been supplanted by other forms of energy transduction. Victor Sojo of Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich (LMU) with expertise in: Biophysics, Biochemistry and Astrochemistry.
Read 12 publications, and contact Victor Sojo on ResearchGate.