Research Paper Introduction Example: Because this type of academic assignment consists of several parts. If you fail to complete one of the levels, you will fail the whole paper. Introduction is not a literal beginning As you know, the hardest part is just to begin the paper.
Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.
Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews.
An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material. This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes.
For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, modified with italics substituted for underlining. This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences.
The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3.
Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form.
Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Cranea reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources.
This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA,which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications. You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.
Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas.
Walters, or Austin, For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters,pp.
Do not use footnotes in this class for citations. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves.
Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.
Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references.
Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference.
Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: If there are two authors, separate their names with "and".
If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. National Bureau of Standards. Date Enclose the date in parentheses.Why a Scientific Format? The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. How to Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings.
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