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Etymology[ edit ] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius literally "kidnapper" to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martialwho complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses".
Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. Legal aspects[ edit ] Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud.
While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright.
Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship.
Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience for example, a reader, listener, or teacher.
Plagiarism is also Internet use and misuse essay a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher.
In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong. In academia and journalism[ edit ] Within academiaplagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes[ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong[ citation needed ].
Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internetwhere articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism.
According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses: Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: Uses words, ideas, or work products Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary  Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.
Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation. Submitting someone's work as their own. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.
Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources.
Using quotations, but not citing the source. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing.The Uses and Abuses of Mobile / Cellular Phones. Introduction: Articulate speech is the human capacity that allows us to communicate and express urbanagricultureinitiative.com being is the only animal that possesses the extraordinary capacity of speecht.
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