Mystery of the Rosetta Stone Without the Rosetta stone, we would know nothing of the ancient Egyptians Beginning with the conquest of Alexander the Great in BC, Greek was the language of the governing elite in Egypt.
Description[ edit ] The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodioritebearing three inscriptions No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site. The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left.
The following register of demotic text has survived best; it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side. The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone.
The texts are of similar length. These parallels, and a hieroglyphic sign for "stela" on the stone itself, see Gardiner's sign listsuggest that it originally had a rounded top.
The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar rosetta stone egyptian writing alphabet "18 Meshir " in the Egyptian calendarwhich corresponds to March 27, BC.
Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in BC by Aristomenes of Alyziawho was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thracewhile the Battle of Panium BC had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syriaincluding Judaeafrom the Ptolemies to the Seleucids.
In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture.
The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" hieroglyphsthe "language of documents" demoticand the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government.
The High Priests of Memphis —where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.
An up-to-date translation by R. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text. Bevan 's full translation in The House of Ptolemy based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.
The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid Rosetta where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.
Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay c. Unlike the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyphic texts of these other copies of the decree were relatively intact.
The Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before they were found, but later Egyptologists, including Wallis Budgeused these other copies to refine the reconstruction of the hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone.
A corps of technical experts savantsknown as the Commission des Sciences et des Artsaccompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt.
On July 15,French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Juliena couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta modern-day Rashid. Lancret's report, dated July 19,was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars.
Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs.
One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcela printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought.
The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them. In Marchthe British landed at Aboukir Bay. Menou was now in command of the French expedition.
His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with many other antiquities.
He was defeated in battle, and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. Menou surrendered on August Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamiltonnewly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed.
In a letter home, Clarke said that "we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined". Clarke and Hamilton pleaded the French scholars' case to Hutchinson, who finally agreed that items such as natural history specimens would be the scholars' private property.
Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the BritishFrenchand Ottoman forces.
It is not clear exactly how the stone was transferred into British hands, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner was to escort it to England, but he claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage.
In a much more detailed account, Edward Daniel Clarke stated that a French "officer and member of the Institute" had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back streets behind Menou's residence and revealed the stone hidden under protective carpets among Menou's baggage.The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in , inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy urbanagricultureinitiative.com top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient urbanagricultureinitiative.com the decree has only minor differences between the three.
Then a black stone was uncovered in Egypt that contained three types of writing. On the top was hieroglyphs, in the middle was demotic writing and on the bottom was Greek. A French scholar named Champollion was able to work out the top two scripts through his understanding of Greek. Rosetta stone is a black stone slab covered with two kinds of Egyptian writing and Greek.
Three types of writings on the Rosetta Stone The three types of writing on the Rosetta Stone are;. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic writing, numerals and mathematical problems using the ancient numbers and the Rosetta stone. Champollion & Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing.
Ancient Egyptian history covers a continuous period of over three thousand years. To put this in perspective – most modern countries count their histories in hundreds of years. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics - The Rosetta Stone. THE ROSETTA STONE. The Rosetta Stone is our key to understanding the meaning of hieroglyphs.
The Rosetta Stone was a black basalt slab with the same piece of writing carved in three different languages: Hieroglyphics (top), Demotic (middle) and .
The Rosetta Stone contains text written in three languages, which made it possible to translate ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Rosetta Stone: Key to Ancient Egyptian Writing.