Letter to the Editor: I want to thank you for the great opportunity that "Somos Primos" provides for the preservation and advancement of Hispanic culture. The internet has provided humanity with a quantum leap in information and research. Therefore it is imperative that Hispanic culture in all its diversity be documented in cyberspace so that future generations may not only appreciate but understand their legacy.
Oaks, Quorum of the 12 Apostles. Critics' Arguments Latter-day Saints are repeatedly encouraged to rely on a witness of the spirit i.
Holy Ghost to personally authenticate the truthfulness of the origins and content of the Book of Mormon. Given constant encouragement from general and local leaders of reliance on supernatural manifestations a testimony over testable claims, it is not surprising that many faithful Latter-Day Saints seem unfazed by empirical evidence or the lack of it contradicting Book of Mormon claims, whether the research is conducted by Mormon or non-Mormon archaeologists and historians.
Of even greater concern is that many faithful LDS members, by virtue of the admonition of their leaders mentioned aboveare not even aware of the perplexing problems contained in the Book of Mormon text.
As a result, they are usually unable to effectively dialogue with critics without resorting to faith-based claims in a testimony which carry no authoritative weight for the many dedicated experts in the fields of archaeology, history, linguistics, genetics, etc.
This page details some problems that arise by accepting the Church-sanctioned teachings of the origin and content of the BOM as well as responses to those problems from the LDS Church, apologists and devout members.
Anachronisms An anachronism is when writing contains something from a future time period which couldn't realistically be in the time period they've written it into. Count the clock," with Cassius replying, "The clock has stricken three.
Shakespeare took something familiar to him, a clock that strikes the hours, and placed it in his story before such clocks existed. Because the play is fictional, it is seen as simply an error on Shakespeare's part.
If, however, someone were to claim that they had found an ancient writing from 44 BC that had the play written on it, it would clearly be seen as a forgery because of the clock anachronism.
If the play "Julius Caesar" were purported to be a historical document, originally written in Latin in 44 BC and translated by someone in the 's, claiming that God gave them the translation of that document, would that one clock anachronism be enough for you to disbelieve that it was truly from 44 BC or a translation from God?
If it would require more than one anachronism for you to disbelieve, how many such anachronisms would be needed for you to realize the writing was not what it claimed to be?
For many apologists, if something is possible, no matter how implausible, that is enough to assuage their concerns. For critics, the idea is not what is possible, but what is probable. What is the probability of a reference to a clock that strikes hours realistically appearing in a document from 44 BC?
A "Julius Caesar" apologist would believe so much in the historicity of the "Julius Caesar" document that she would try any method possible to wave away the clock anachronism. The critic would try to prove the clock was an anachronism, thereby proving its fraudulent provenance. The apologist may say that what the original document was referring to was simply a sundial, but the person translating it knew that it was some sort of timepiece and chose a timepiece they were familiar with, a clock.
The critic would point out that the phrase "count the clock" and the word "stricken" clearly refer to clocks that make noise and that in the particular scene in "Julius Caesar" it was 3: So, although the apologist's explanation seemed to make sense, on further examination it crumbles.
The apologist cannot leave it there, she must do whatever twisting and turning it takes to maintain her belief in the "truthfulness" of the document and its translation. This will lead to ever more absurd explanations and possibly outright lies to protect her belief about the historicity of the document at all costs.
Anachronisms in the Book of Mormon present a problem for the truthfulness of Joseph Smith's statements that a the gold plates existed and b they contained a historical account from the time period it claims.
Somos Primos JULY , Online Issue Mimi Lozano © Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research. the aztecs - The Aztecs were an American Indian people who ruled a mighty empire in Mexico from the 's to the 's. The Aztecs had one of the most advanced civilizations in the Americas and built cities as large as any in Europe at that time. The Aztecs: the Lost People of Mesoamerica Essay Throughout history we find many different kingdoms, civilizations and peoples and each of them are unique in their own way. The Aztecs DBQ Essay A scream pierces the air as another victim, of thousands more, becomes lifeless in a temple of the praised Aztecan sun god. Blood stream down the.
It might be easy to brush off an anachronism or two, but how many anachronisms need to be found in the Book of Mormon for someone to say that the book was not what Joseph claimed it to be? Both critics and apologists understand that for each verifiable anachronistic item appearing in the Book of Mormon the odds increase significantly that the book's origins and content are not what they are claimed to be.
Not only does an increase in the frequency of anachronisms increase the probability that a work is not historically accurate, but the nature in which the anachronistic word is used can do so as well.
In the clock example above, if "clock" were mentioned alone, it would be easier to pass off as some sort of translation error. But when the idea within which the anachronistic word is embedded relies on a specific meaning for that word, such as the idea that the clock must "strike" and be used at night, then the probability of it being an actual anachronism instead of just a simple mistake increases.
When one looks at the frequency and context of Book of Mormon anachronisms "horses" in the BOM are often found coupled with either "chariots" or "cattle," both of which are also anachronismsit's hard to imagine any other origin than it being the product of the mind s of a 19th century author s.
Most critical thinkers believe the simplest, most logical answer is probably the correct one based on the idea of Occam's Razor. This is not to say that some answers and reasons can't be more complex, but when the preponderance of reasons and answers explaining a theory are complex, it might be time to give up trying to support that theory.
Besides simply chronological anachronisms, the Book of Mormon contains items that might not be simply out of time, but they are geographically out of place for the time period the Book of Mormon covers.
The Church teaches that the first inhabitants of the Americas were the Jaredites, arriving in the New World and beginning their historical records "approximately B. This means that anything mentioned in the Book of Mormon takes place from approximately BC to approximately AD.
An example of something in the correct time period for parts of the world, but out of place for the Americas is steel. The same is true for many animals, such as horses, elephants, goats, donkeys, etc. Below are some of the contradictory and often anachronistic items in the Book of Mormon text.
We list the critics' arguments and LDS responses. Book of Mormon Animals Some of the anachronistic animals found in the Book of Mormon include horses, cattle, oxen, donkeys, goats, wild goats, sheep, swine and elephants see 1 Nephi Book of Mormon Problems. LDS Church members are taught that the Book of Mormon (BOM) is scripture, as well as a true record of the inhabitants of the Americas from about BC to AD.
Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
So, with some fancy games and pliant appraisers, the bank recorded a $2 million gain on its deal making. The reality, however, was that $9 million had gone out the door, the bank was paying 15% interest to depositors, and no money was coming in, not even interest payments.
# The Aztecs were really alone people and their individuality was robbed by the Spanish conquering. Today what society holds as one of its cardinal values. freedom of look. was lost when the Spanish forced their ain faith.
civilization and traditions on the Aztecs. The Aztecs: the Lost People of Mesoamerica Throughout history we find many different kingdoms, civilizations and peoples and each of them are unique in their own way.
By considering the varying degrees of sophistication, different lifestyles, religion and agriculture individuals can examine these peoples and come to understand their way of.
Somos Primos JULY , Online Issue Mimi Lozano © Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.